The bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., 1758) is a plant of the Leguminosae family also called Fabaceae or Papilionaceae, originally from Central America. It was imported, following the discovery of America, in Europe where there were only beans of species belonging to the genus Vigna, of sub-Saharan origin: the beans of the genus Phaseolus have spread everywhere supplanting the group of the ancient world, as they have proven more easy to grow and more profitable (the yield per hectare is almost double compared to the vineyard).
The bean is grown for seeds, collected fresh (shell beans) or dried, or for the whole legume to be eaten fresh (green beans, or croissants). The varieties with a longer vegetative cycle, in the temperate regions are sown in spring, those with a shorter cycle in summer. In the case of climbing beans, it is necessary to place supports.