The endive (Cichorium endivia) (from the Greek ἔντυβον, attested in the Byzantine Geoponics), also called escarole, is an edible plant belonging to the Asteraceae (or Composite) family.
It comes in two varieties: the classic variety called crispum and the latifolium variety, commonly called escarole.
The plant prefers very fertile soils, loose and rich in organic matter. It is sown in a seedbed and planted when the seedlings have four or five leaves, respecting the distance of 25–30 cm on the row and 30–40 cm between the rows.
Irrigation must be frequent until the plants form the head, then they thin out in order to avoid the rot of the leaves and the collar. Harvesting takes place in autumn, winter and early spring. From a nutritional point of view, the good content of vitamin A should be highlighted.